3-D-Printed Registration Phantom for Combined Ultrasound and Optical Imaging of Biological Tissues

  • Michael A.Pinkert
  • Benjamin L.Cox
  • Bing Dai
  • Timothy J.Hall
  • Kevin W.Eliceiri


Efforts to develop quantitative ultrasound biomarkers would benefit from comparisons between ultrasound data and higher-resolution images of the tissue microstructure, such as from optical microscopy. However, only a few studies have used these methods for multiscale imaging because it is difficult to register low-resolution (>100 μm) ultrasound images to high-resolution microscopy images. To address this need, we have designed a 3-D-printed registration phantom that is made of a hard fluorescent resin, fits into a glass-bottom dish and can be used to calculate a coordinate system transform between ultrasound and optical microscopy. We report the phantom design, a registration protocol and an example registration using 18.5-MHz ultrasound and second harmonic generation microscopy. We evaluate the registration precision, achieving standard deviations smaller than the ultrasound resolution across all axes, and illustrate on a mouse mammary gland that this method yields results superior to those of manual landmark registration.

“… 1.5 coverslips (Part No. 4550-1.5D, Brain Research LaboratoriesWabanMA, USA) and secured into place…”

Original Article